How to charge the marine battery?

Table of Contents

Marine batteries are generally 12V voltage, battery equipment with larger storage capacity, and battery equipment with larger capacity must be charged with higher-power charging equipment.

Marine battery charging tool: 12V high power charger

Marine battery charging method/step

Be sure to distinguish the positive and negative poles of the marine battery (red +)!

Positive to positive, negative to negative (red to red) to charge!

Marine battery charging precautions

Do not reverse the positive and negative poles! Otherwise the battery will be damaged!

The charging and discharging method of marine battery

Batteries can be used in different aspects, such as starting and lighting of automobiles, motorcycles, tractors, diesel engines, ships and so on.

There are two types of marine batteries: acid batteries and alkaline batteries. Acid batteries, also known as lead-acid batteries, have the longest history in marine applications and are often used for diesel engine starting and emergency lighting. Alkaline batteries include cadmium-nickel batteries, iron-nickel batteries, zinc-silver batteries and cadmium-silver batteries, etc., and are mainly used in radio communication equipment. However, the price is higher, and civilian ships are less likely to be used.

How to charge the marine battery

Below we mainly look at the charging and discharging methods of marine batteries.

The method and type of charging

There are various charging methods and types of batteries, which should be selected according to the purpose and economy of the battery.

① Charging methods are:

Constant current charging – charging with constant current until the end of discharge;

Constant voltage charging – charge the battery with a constant voltage (due to the large passing current in the early stage of charging, the capacity of the rectifier should be selected according to the current); constant current and constant voltage charging – in the initial stage of charging, a suitable constant high current is applied to achieve At a certain voltage, keep a constant voltage for continuous charging;

Continuous supplementary charging–the method of self-discharging the unloaded battery for supplementary charging; segmental charging–charging according to the constant voltage or constant current charging current varying from 2 to 3 stages.

② The types of charging are:

Initial charging – when using lead-acid batteries, add electrolyte to the battery for the first time for charging, the current in the charging stage is 0.07 of the rated capacity, until the voltage of a single cell rises to 2.4V, and the current in the second stage is 0.04 of the rated capacity , charged to a single cell voltage rose to 2.5 V, and the relative density and voltage were stable within 3 hours.

Normal charging – for the battery that has been discharged, in order to restore it to the original specified capacity, the charging is carried out in two stages, and the stage is charged according to the current of the standard charging system (0.1 of the rated capacity) for 6 to 7 hours. The second stage is charged with half the stage charging current for 2 to 3 hours. Balanced charging – after a long-term use of batteries used in combination with multiple small batteries, the relative density, capacity and unbalance of each small battery often occur. For this reason, it is necessary to perform balanced charging every month, and the method is to perform normal charging first; After standing for 1 hour, use the current of the second stage of the initial charge to charge until violent bubbles are generated; let it stand for another hour, and repeat the above charging process until the voltage and relative density remain stable.

③ Battery charging and discharging method

At present, the charging and discharging methods used on ships include interactive charging and discharging, floating charging, and a combination of alternating charging and discharging and floating charging.

Comparison of the characteristics of various charging and discharging methods for marine batteries

1. Interactive charging and discharging method

Main features: The charging and discharging of the two sets of batteries are interchangeable; the charging device is only connected to one set of batteries, and the other set of batteries is connected to the load; the charging device cannot be connected to the load circuit, and the continuous supplementary charging method is generally used.

Main advantages and disadvantages: When charging-discharging conversion, instantaneous power failure occurs on the load side; each battery group is independent, when one group fails, the other group of batteries can still supply power, and the reliability is high.

2. Float charging method

Main features: The battery and the load are connected to the charging device in parallel, and the floating charge voltage remains constant; when charging, the battery only passes the current for supplementary charging; since the charging circuit is equipped with a current limiting link, when a large current load occurs, the battery will bear part of the load , After the human current load disappears, the battery discharge part is supplemented by the charging device; when the power is cut off, the battery bears the full load; after the power failure is restored, the charging device bears the normal load and charges the battery.

Main advantages and disadvantages: Since the charging device supplies power to the load during floating charging, and the battery supplies power to the load during a power outage, there is no instantaneous power failure and voltage fluctuations are small; the battery maintains the most suitable charging coil in normal times, and is in a good overcharged state. Therefore, the battery life is prolonged, the charging device bears the normal load current and the battery charging current, and the battery bears the large current and the load during power failure, so the charging device and the battery capacity are reduced.

3. Combination of interactive charging and discharging method and floating charging method

Main features: According to the needs, there are usually the following two combinations:

Using the transfer switch, one group of batteries is connected to the fast charging device, and the other group of batteries is connected in parallel with the floating charging device and the load.

Main advantages and disadvantages: Two sets of charging devices are required, and the number of seedling batteries is large: the two sets of batteries can be used as backup for each other, with high reliability; one charging device is used, and the battery capacity is small; the reliability is high.

Only one charging device is provided. Normally, two sets of batteries are connected in parallel with the load and the charging device. Using the transfer switch, one set of batteries can be charged equally.

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