Single-phase and three-phase electrical voltage by country

Table of Contents

Understanding Single-Phase and Three-Phase Electrical Systems

Single-Phase Systems

Single-phase systems are commonly found in residential and light commercial settings. They use a single alternating current (AC) waveform, typically with two cables: a live cord and a neutral cord. The voltage in a single-phase system oscillates in a sinusoidal pattern, reaching its peak value twice per cycle. This system is enough for powering household devices and small equipment, with relatively low power demand.

Critical Characteristics of Single-Phase Systems:

  • Used in residential and light commercial settings
  • Single AC waveform
  • Two cables: live and neutral
  • Oscillating voltage pattern
  • Sufficient for low power demand

Three-Phase Systems

On the other hand, three-phase systems are prevalent in industrial and large commercial environments. They have three alternating current waveforms, each phase offset by 120 degrees. This setup requires three or four cords: three live cords (each carrying one phase) and, in many cases, a neutral cord. The primary advantage of a three-phase system is its capacity to deliver consistent power, which is essential for heavy equipment and high-power applications. It offers greater efficiency and smoother operation compared to single-phase systems.

Critical Characteristics of Three-Phase Systems:

  • Used in industrial and large commercial settings
  • Three AC waveforms, each offset by 120 degrees
  • Three or four cables: three live and sometimes a neutral
  • Consistent power delivery
  • Greater efficiency and smoother operation

Key differences between single-phase and three-phase electrical voltage systems

Understanding the distinctions between single-phase and three-phase electrical systems is crucial for various applications and industries. These differences impact efficiency, usage, and compatibility across different regions.

Standard voltage levels for single-phase systems globally

Single-phase systems are commonly used in residential and light commercial settings. The standard voltage levels vary by country and region, providing the necessary power for household appliances and small-scale equipment.

Country-specific voltage standards for single-phase systems

  • United States: 120V
  • United Kingdom: 230V
  • Australia: 230V
  • Japan: 100V

Standard voltage levels for three-phase systems globally

Three-phase systems are prevalent in industrial and heavy commercial environments due to their higher power capabilities and efficiency. The standard voltage levels also differ across various regions.

Country-specific voltage standards for three-phase systems

  • United States: 208V, 480V
  • United Kingdom: 400V
  • Australia: 400V
  • Japan: 200V

Common applications of single-phase and three-phase systems by country

The applications of single-phase and three-phase systems vary depending on the country’s infrastructure, industrial requirements, and residential needs. Here are some common applications:

  • Single-phase: Residential homes, small businesses, and low-power applications.
  • Three-phase: Industrial plants, large commercial buildings, and heavy machinery operations.
CountrySingle-Phase Voltage (Volts)Three-Phase Voltage (Volts)Frequency (Hertz)Number of wires (not including ground
wire)
Abu Dhabi (an Emirate within UAE)230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Afghanistan220 V380 V50 Hz4
Albania230 V400 V50 Hz4
Algeria230 V400 V50 Hz4
American Samoa120 V208 V60 Hz3, 4
Andorra230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Angola220 V380 V50 Hz4
Anguilla110 V120/ 208V/ 127V/ 220 V/ 240V/ 415 V60 Hz3, 4
Antigua and Barbuda230 V400 V60 Hz3, 4
Argentina220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Armenia230 V400 V50 Hz4
Aruba120 V220 V60 Hz3, 4
Australia230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Austria230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Azerbaijan220 V380 V50 Hz4
Azores230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Bahamas120 V208 V60 Hz3, 4
Bahrain230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Balearic Islands230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Bangladesh220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Barbados115 V200 V50 Hz3, 4
Belarus220 V380 V50 Hz4
Belgium230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Belize110 V / 220 V190 V / 380 V60 Hz3, 4
Benin220 V380 V50 Hz4
Bermuda120 V208 V60 Hz3, 4
Bhutan230 V400 V50 Hz4
Bolivia230 V400 V50 Hz4
Bonaire127 V220 V50 Hz3, 4
Bosnia & Herzegovina230 V400 V50 Hz4
Botswana230 V400 V50 Hz4
Brazil127 V / 220 V220 V / 380 V60 Hz3, 4
British Virgin Islands110 V190 V60 Hz3, 4
Brunei240 V415 V50 Hz4
Bulgaria230 V400 V50 Hz4
Burkina Faso220 V380 V50 Hz4
Burma (officially
Myanmar)
230 V400 V50 Hz4
Burundi220 V380 V50 Hz4
Cambodia230 V400 V50 Hz4
Cameroon220 V380 V50 Hz4
Canada120 V120V /208V/ 240V/ 480V /347V / 600V60 Hz3, 4
Canary Islands230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Cape Verde230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Cayman Islands120 V240 V60 Hz3
Central African Republic220 V380 V50 Hz4
Chad220 V380 V50 Hz4
Channel Islands (Guernsey
& Jersey)
230 V415 V50 Hz4
Chile220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
China, People’s Republic of220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Colombia110 V220 V / 440 V60 Hz3, 4
Comoros220 V380 V50 Hz4
Congo, Democratic
Republic of
220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Congo, People’s Republic
of
230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Cook Islands240 V415 V50 Hz3, 4
Costa Rica120 V240 V60 Hz3, 4
Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Croatia230 V400 V50 Hz4
Cuba110 V / 220 V190 V60 Hz3
Curaçao127 V220 V / 380 V50 Hz3, 4
Cyprus230 V400 V50 Hz4
Czech Republic230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Denmark230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Djibouti220 V380 V50 Hz4
Dominica230 V400 V50 Hz4
Dominican Republic120 V120/208 V / 277/ 480 V60 Hz3, 4
Dubai230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
East Timor (Timor- Leste)220 V380 V50 Hz4
Ecuador120 V208 V60 Hz3, 4
Egypt220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
El Salvador120 V200 V60 Hz3
England230 V415 V50 Hz4
Equatorial Guinea220 V[unavailable][unavailable][unavailable]
Eritrea230 V400 V50 Hz4
Estonia230 V400 V50 Hz4
Ethiopia220 V380 V50 Hz4
Faeroe Islands230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Falkland Islands240 V415 V50 Hz4
Fiji240 V415 V50 Hz3, 4
Finland230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
France230 V400 V50 Hz4
French Guiana220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Gabon (Gabonese
Republic)
220 V380 V50 Hz4
Gambia230 V400 V50 Hz4
Gaza230 V400 V50 Hz4
Georgia220 V380 V50 Hz4
Germany230 V400 V50 Hz4
Ghana230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Gibraltar230 V400 V50 Hz4
Great Britain (GB)230 V415 V50 Hz4
Greece230 V400 V50 Hz4
Greenland230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Grenada230 V400 V50 Hz4
Guadeloupe230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Guam110 V190 V60 Hz3, 4
Guatemala120 V208 V60 Hz3, 4
Guinea220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Guinea-Bissau220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Guyana120 V / 240 V190 V60 Hz3, 4
Haiti110 V190 V60 Hz3, 4
The Netherlands230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Honduras120 V208 V / 230 V / 240 V / 460 V / 480 V60 Hz3, 4
Hong Kong220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Hungary230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Iceland230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
India230 V400 V50 Hz4 
Indonesia230 V400 V50 Hz4
Iran230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Iraq230 V400 V50 Hz4
Ireland (Eire)230 V415 V50 Hz4
Ireland, Northern230 V415 V50 Hz4
Isle of Man230 V415 V50 Hz4
Israel230 V400 V50 Hz4
Italy230 V400 V50 Hz4
Jamaica110 V190 V50 Hz3, 4
Japan100 V200 V50 / 60 Hz3
Jordan230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Kazakhstan220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Kenya240 V415 V50 Hz4
Kiribati240 V[unavailable][unavailable][unavailable]
Korea, North220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Korea, South220 V380 V60 Hz4
Kosovo230 V230 V / 400 V50 Hz3
Kuwait240 V415 V50 Hz4
Kyrgyzstan220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Laos230 V400 V50 Hz4
Latvia230 V400 V50 Hz4
Lebanon230 V400 V50 Hz4
Lesotho220 V380 V50 Hz4
Liberia120 V208 V60 Hz3, 4
Libya230 V400 V50 Hz4
Liechtenstein230 V400 V50 Hz4
Lithuania230 V400 V50 Hz4
Luxembourg230 V400 V50 Hz4
Macau220 V380 V50 Hz3
Macedonia230 V400 V50 Hz4
Madagascar220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Madeira230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Malawi230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Malaysia240 V415 V50 Hz4
Maldives230 V400 V50 Hz4
Mali220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Malta230 V400 V50 Hz4
Marshall Islands120 V[unavailable][unavailable][unavailable]
Martinique220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Mauritania220 V220 V50 Hz3, 4
Mauritius230 V400 V50 Hz4
Mayotte230 V[unavailable][unavailable][unavailable]
Mexico127 V220 V / 480 V60 Hz3, 4
Micronesia, Federated
States of
120 V[unavailable][unavailable][unavailable]
Moldova230 V400 V50 Hz4
Monaco230 V400 V50 Hz4
Mongolia230 V400 V50 Hz4
Montenegro230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Montserrat230 V400 V60 Hz4
Morocco220 V380 V50 Hz4 
Mozambique220 V380 V50 Hz4
Myanmar (formerly
Burma)
230 V400 V50 Hz4
Namibia220 V380 V50 Hz4
Nauru240 V415 V50 Hz4
Nepal230 V400 V50 Hz4
Netherlands230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
New Caledonia220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
New Zealand230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Nicaragua120 V208 V60 Hz3, 4
Niger220 V380 V50 Hz4
Nigeria230 V415 V50 Hz4
Northern Ireland230 V415 V50 Hz4
North Korea220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Norway230 V230 V / 400 V50 Hz3, 4
Oman240 V415 V50 Hz4
Pakistan230 V400 V50 Hz3
Palau120 V208 V60 Hz3
Panama120 V240 V60 Hz3
Papua New Guinea240 V415 V50 Hz4
Paraguay220 V380 V50 Hz4
Peru220 V220 V60 Hz3
Philippines220 V380 V60 Hz3
Pitcairn Islands230 V[unavailable][unavailable][unavailable]
Poland230 V400 V50 Hz4 
Portugal230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4 
Puerto Rico120 V480 V60 Hz3, 4
Qatar240 V415 V50 Hz3, 4
Réunion230 V400 V50 Hz4
Romania230 V400 V50 Hz4
Russia (officially the
Russian Federation)
220 V380 V50 Hz4
Rwanda230 V400 V50 Hz4
Saba110 V[unavailable][unavailable][unavailable]
Saint Barthélemy
(informally also referred to as Saint Barth’s or Saint Barts)
230 V[unavailable][unavailable][unavailable]
Saint Kitts and Nevis (officially the Federation of Saint Christopher and
Nevis)
230 V400 V60 Hz4
Saint Lucia230 V400 V50 Hz4
Saint Martin220 V[unavailable][unavailable][unavailable]
Saint Helena230 V[unavailable][unavailable][unavailable]
Sint Eustatius110 V / 220 V220 V60 Hz3, 4
Sint Maarten110 V220 V60 Hz3, 4
Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines
110 V / 230 V400 V50 Hz4
Samoa230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
San Marino230 V400 V50 Hz4
São Tomé and Príncipe230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Saudi Arabia230 V400 V60 Hz4
Scotland230 V415 V50 Hz4
Senegal230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Serbia230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Seychelles240 V240 V50 Hz3
Sierra Leone230 V400 V50 Hz4
Singapore230 V400 V50 Hz4
Slovakia230 V400 V50 Hz4
Slovenia230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Solomon Islands230 V[unavailable][unavailable][unavailable]
Somalia220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
Somaliland220 V380 V50 Hz3, 4
South Africa230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
South Korea220 V380 V60 Hz4
South Sudan230 V400 V50 Hz4
Spain230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Sri Lanka230 V400 V50 Hz4
Sudan230 V400 V50 Hz4
Suriname127 V / 230 V220 V / 400 V60 Hz3, 4
Swaziland230 V400 V50 Hz4
Sweden230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Switzerland230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Syria220 V380 V50 Hz3
Tahiti220 V380 V50 / 60 Hz3, 4
Taiwan110 V220 V60 Hz4
Tajikistan220 V380 V50 Hz3
Tanzania230 V415 V50 Hz3, 4
Thailand230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Togo220 V380 V50 Hz4
Tonga240 V415 V50 Hz3, 4
Trinidad & Tobago115 V115/230 V /
230/400 V
60 Hz4
Tunisia230 V400 V50 Hz4
Turkey230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Turkmenistan220 V380 V50 Hz3
Turks and Caicos Islands120 V240 V60 Hz4
Uganda240 V415 V50 Hz4
Ukraine230 V400 V50 Hz4
United Arab Emirates
(UAE)
230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
United Kingdom (UK)230 V415 V50 Hz4
United States of America (USA)120 V120/208V / 277/ 480V / 120/240 V /
240 V / 480 V
60 Hz3, 4
United States Virgin
Islands
110 V190 V60 Hz3, 4
Uruguay220 V380 V50 Hz3
Uzbekistan220 V380 V50 Hz4
Vanuatu230 V400 V50 Hz3, 4
Venezuela120 V120 V60 Hz3, 4
Vietnam220 V380 V50 Hz4
Virgin Islands (British)110 V190 V60 Hz3, 4
irgin Islands (USA)110 V190 V60 Hz3, 4
Wales230 V415 V50 Hz4
Yemen230 V400 V50 Hz4
Zambia230 V400 V50 Hz4
Zimbabwe240 V415 V50 Hz3, 4
     
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1 thought on “Single-phase and three-phase electrical voltage by country”

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