Batteries are very common in our lives. There are batteries for electric vehicles, lithium batteries for mobile phones, batteries for audio, batteries for flashlights, solar lighting batteries, lithium batteries for cars, power banks, walkie-talkies, laptops, remote controls Cars, razor batteries, home TV remote controls, etc. will use batteries, so how much do we ordinary people know about batteries? Today, I will take you to learn about the battery.
Basic principle and basic terminology of battery
1. What is a battery?
A battery is an energy conversion and storage device that converts chemical or physical energy into electrical energy through a reaction. According to the different energy conversion of batteries, batteries can be divided into chemical batteries and physical batteries.
A chemical battery or chemical power source is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. It consists of two electrochemically active electrodes with different compositions to form the positive and negative electrodes, and uses a chemical substance that can provide media conduction as an electrolyte. When connected to an external carrier, it provides electrical energy by converting its internal chemical energy. .
A physical battery is a device that converts physical energy into electrical energy.
2. What are the differences between primary batteries and secondary batteries?
The main difference is the difference in the active material. The active material of the secondary battery is reversible, while the active material of the primary battery is not reversible. The self-discharge of the primary battery is much smaller than that of the secondary battery, but the internal resistance is much larger than that of the secondary battery, so the load capacity is lower. In addition, the mass specific capacity and volume specific capacity of the primary battery are larger than those of the general rechargeable battery.
3. What is the electrochemical principle of NiMH battery?
The Ni-MH battery uses Ni oxide as the positive electrode, hydrogen storage metal as the negative electrode, and lye (mainly KOH) as the electrolyte. When charging the Ni-MH battery:
Positive reaction: Ni(OH)2 + OH- → NiOOH + H2O–e-
Negative reaction: M+H2O +e-→ MH+ OH-
When the NiMH battery is discharged:
Positive reaction: NiOOH + H2O + e- → Ni(OH)2 + OH-
Negative reaction: MH+ OH- →M+H2O +e-
4. What is the electrochemical principle of lithium-ion batteries?
The main component of the positive electrode of the lithium-ion battery is LiCoO2, and the negative electrode is mainly C. When charging,
Cathode reaction: LiCoO2 → Li1-xCoO2 + xLi+ + xe-
Negative reaction: C + xLi+ + xe- → CLix
Overall cell reaction: LiCoO2 + C → Li1-xCoO2 + CLix
The reverse reaction of the above reaction occurs during discharge.
5. What are the commonly used standards for batteries?
Commonly used IEC standards for batteries: The standard for nickel-metal hydride batteries is IEC61951-2:2003; the lithium-ion battery industry generally follows UL or national standards.
Commonly used national standards for batteries: the standards for nickel-metal hydride batteries are GB/T15100_1994, GB/T18288_2000; the standards for lithium batteries are GB/T10077_1998, YD/T998_1999, GB/T18287_2000.
In addition, the commonly used standards for batteries also include the Japanese Industrial Standard JIS C standards for batteries.
IEC, the International Electrical Commission, is a worldwide organization for standardization composed of electrotechnical commissions of various countries. Its purpose is to promote the standardization of the world’s electrical and electronic fields. IEC standards are standards developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission.
6. What are the main structural components of NiMH batteries?
The main components of NiMH battery are: positive electrode (nickel oxide), negative electrode (hydrogen storage alloy), electrolyte (mainly KOH), separator paper, sealing ring, positive cap, battery shell, etc.
7. What are the main structural components of lithium-ion batteries?
The main components of a lithium-ion battery are: battery upper and lower covers, positive electrode sheet (active material is lithium cobalt oxide), separator (a special composite film), negative electrode (active material is carbon), organic electrolyte, battery shell (divided into Steel shell and aluminum shell) and so on.
8. What is the internal resistance of the battery?
Refers to the resistance of the current flowing through the battery when the battery is working. It consists of ohmic internal resistance and polarization internal resistance. The large internal resistance of the battery will cause the battery discharge working voltage to decrease and the discharge time to be shortened. The internal resistance is mainly affected by factors such as battery material, manufacturing process, and battery structure. It is an important parameter to measure battery performance. Note: Generally, the internal resistance in the charging state is used as the standard. The internal resistance of the battery needs to be measured with a special internal resistance meter, not with the ohm gear of a multimeter.
9. What is the nominal voltage?
The nominal voltage of the battery refers to the voltage displayed during normal operation. The nominal voltage of the secondary nickel-cadmium nickel-hydrogen battery is 1.2V; the nominal voltage of the secondary lithium battery is 3.6V.
10. What is open circuit voltage?
The open circuit voltage refers to the potential difference between the positive and negative electrodes of the battery when the battery is in a non-working state, that is, when there is no current flowing through the circuit. The working voltage, also known as the terminal voltage, refers to the potential difference between the positive and negative electrodes of the battery when the battery is in working state, that is, when there is current in the circuit.
11. What is the capacity of the battery?
The capacity of the battery is divided into the rated capacity and the actual capacity. The rated capacity of the battery refers to the design and manufacture of the battery that stipulates or guarantees that the battery should discharge the minimum amount of electricity under certain discharge conditions. The IEC standard stipulates that nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are charged at 0.1C for 16 hours and then discharged to 1.0V at 0.2C under the environment of 20℃±5℃. The rated capacity of the battery is expressed as C5. For lithium-ion batteries, it is stipulated that they are charged for 3 hours under the charging conditions controlled by normal temperature, constant current (1C)-constant voltage (4.2V), and then the power released when discharged from 0.2C to 2.75V is its rated capacity. The actual capacity of the battery refers to the actual power released by the battery under certain discharge conditions, which is mainly affected by the discharge rate and temperature (so strictly speaking, the battery capacity should specify the charge and discharge conditions). The unit of battery capacity is Ah, mAh (1Ah=1000mAh).
12. What is the discharge residual capacity of the battery?
When the rechargeable battery is discharged with a large current (such as 1C or above), due to the “bottleneck effect” of the internal diffusion rate due to the excessive current, the battery has reached the terminal voltage when the capacity is not fully discharged, and then use a small current such as 0.2C can continue to discharge until 1.0V/pc (Ni-Cd and Ni-MH battery) and 3.0V/pc (lithium battery), the released capacity is called residual capacity.
13. What is a discharge platform?
The discharge platform of NiMH rechargeable batteries usually refers to the voltage range within which the working voltage of the battery is relatively stable when the battery is discharged under a certain discharge regime. The value is related to the discharge current. The larger the current, the lower the value. The discharge platform of the lithium-ion battery is generally the discharge time when the constant voltage is charged to a voltage of 4.2V and the current is less than 0.01C, and then the charge is stopped, and then left for 10 minutes to discharge to 3.6V at any rate of discharge current. It is an important standard to measure the quality of the battery.
The battery identification
14. What is the identification method of rechargeable batteries stipulated by IEC?
According to the IEC standard, the identification of nickel-metal hydride batteries consists of 5 parts.
01) Battery type: HF, HR means NiMH battery
02) Battery size information: including the diameter, height of the round battery, height, width, thickness of the square battery, and the values are separated by slashes, unit: mm
03) Discharge characteristic symbol: L means the suitable discharge current rate is within 0.5C
M indicates that the suitable discharge current rate is within 0.5-3.5C
H means the suitable discharge current rate is within 3.5-7.0C
X means that the battery can work under the high rate discharge current of 7C-15C
04) High temperature battery symbol: represented by T
05) The battery connecting piece means: CF stands for no connecting piece, HH stands for the connecting piece for battery pull-shaped series connecting piece, HB stands for the connecting piece for battery with side-by-side series connection.
For example: HF18/07/49 means square NiMH battery, width is 18mm, thickness is 7mm, height is 49mm,
KRMT33/62HH means nickel-cadmium battery, discharge rate is between 0.5C-3.5, high temperature series single battery (without connecting piece), diameter 33mm, height 62mm.
According to the IEC61960 standard, the identification of secondary lithium batteries is as follows:
01) The battery identification consists of 3 letters followed by 5 numbers (cylindrical) or 6 (square) numbers.
02) The first letter: Indicates the negative electrode material of the battery. I—represents lithium ions with built-in batteries; L—represents lithium metal electrodes or lithium alloy electrodes.
03) The second letter: Indicates the positive electrode material of the battery. C—Cobalt based electrode; N—Nickel based electrode; M—Manganese based electrode; V—Vanadium based electrode.
04) The third letter: Indicates the shape of the battery. R—represents a cylindrical battery; L—represents a square battery.
05) Numbers: Cylindrical battery: 5 numbers indicate the diameter and height of the battery respectively. Diameter is in millimeters and height is in tenths of a millimeter. When any dimension of diameter or height is greater than or equal to 100mm, a diagonal line should be added between the two dimensions.
Square battery: 6 numbers indicate the thickness, width and height of the battery, in millimeters. When any of the three dimensions is greater than or equal to 100mm, a slash should be added between the dimensions; if any of the three dimensions is less than 1mm, the letter “t” should be added before the dimension, and the unit of this dimension is one tenth of a millimeter .
For example: ICR18650 represents a cylindrical secondary lithium-ion battery, the positive electrode material is cobalt, its diameter is about 18mm, and its height is about 65mm.
ICP083448 represents a square secondary lithium ion battery, the positive electrode material is cobalt, the thickness is about 8mm, the width is about 34mm, and the height is about 48mm.
ICP08/34/150 represents a square secondary lithium ion battery, the positive electrode material is cobalt, the thickness is about 8mm, the width is about 34mm, and the height is about 150mm.
ICPt73448 represents a square secondary lithium-ion battery, the positive electrode material is cobalt, the thickness is about 0.7mm, the width is about 34mm, and the height is about 48mm.
15. What are the packaging materials of the battery?
01) Non-dry meson (paper) such as fiber paper, double-sided tape
02) PVC film, trademark pipe
03) Connecting sheet: stainless steel sheet, pure nickel sheet, nickel-plated steel sheet
04) Lead-out sheet: stainless steel sheet (easy to solder) pure nickel sheet (spot welding is firm)
05) Plug class
06) Protection components such as temperature control switch, overcurrent protector, current limiting resistor
07) carton, carton
08) Plastic shell
16. What is the purpose of battery packaging, combination and design?
01) Beautiful, brand
02) The battery voltage is limited. To obtain a higher voltage, multiple batteries need to be connected in series
03) Protect the battery, prevent short circuit and prolong battery life
04) Size restrictions
05) Easy to transport
06) Design of special functions, such as waterproof, special appearance design, etc.
Battery performance and testing
Mainly include voltage, internal resistance, capacity, energy density, internal pressure, self-discharge rate, cycle life, sealing performance, safety performance, storage performance, appearance, etc., and others include overcharge, overdischarge, corrosion resistance, etc.
17. What are the main aspects of the performance of the so-called secondary battery?
18. What are the reliability test items for batteries?
01) Cycle life
02) Discharge characteristics at different rates
03) Discharge characteristics at different temperatures
04) Charging characteristics
05) Self-discharge characteristics
06) Storage characteristics
07) Overdischarge characteristics
08) Internal resistance characteristics at different temperatures
09) Temperature cycle test
10) Drop test
11) Vibration test
12) Capacity test
13) Internal resistance test
14) GMS test
15) High and low temperature impact test
16) Mechanical shock test
17) High temperature and high humidity test
19. What are the safety test items for batteries?
01) Short circuit test
02) Overcharge and overdischarge test
03) Withstand voltage test
04) Impact test
05) Vibration test
06) Heating test
07) Fire test
09) Variable temperature cycle test
10) Trickle charge test
11) Free drop test
12) Low air pressure test
13) Forced discharge test
15) Electric hot plate test
17) Thermal shock test
19) Acupuncture Test
20) Crush test
21) Heavy object impact test
20. What are the common charging methods?
How to charge NiMH batteries:
01) Constant current charging: the charging current is a certain value in the whole charging process, this method is the most common;
02) Constant voltage charging: During the charging process, both ends of the charging power supply maintain a constant value, and the current in the circuit gradually decreases as the battery voltage increases;
03) Constant current and constant voltage charging: The battery is first charged with constant current (CC), when the battery voltage rises to a certain value, the voltage remains unchanged (CV), and the current in the circuit drops to a very small value, and eventually tends to 0.
Lithium battery charging method:
Constant current and constant voltage charging: The battery is first charged with constant current (CC), when the battery voltage rises to a certain value, the voltage remains unchanged (CV), and the current in the circuit drops to a very small value, and eventually tends to 0.
21. What is the standard charge and discharge of NiMH batteries?
The IEC international standard stipulates that the standard charging and discharging of nickel-metal hydride batteries is as follows: first, discharge the battery at 0.2C to 1.0V/piece, then charge it at 0.1C for 16 hours, leave it for 1 hour, and discharge it at 0.2C to 1.0V/piece, that is For standard charging and discharging of batteries.
22. What is pulse charging? What is the impact on battery performance?
Pulse charging generally adopts the method of charging and discharging, that is, charging for 5 seconds and discharging for 1 second, so that most of the oxygen generated during the charging process will be reduced to electrolyte under the discharge pulse. It not only limits the vaporization of the internal electrolyte, but also for those old batteries that have been severely polarized, after using this charging method for 5-10 times of charging and discharging, they will gradually recover or approach the original capacity.
23. What is trickle charging?
Trickle charging is used to make up for the capacity loss of the battery due to self-discharge after being fully charged. Generally, pulse current charging is used to achieve the above purpose.
24. What is charging efficiency?
Charging efficiency is a measure of the degree to which the electrical energy consumed by the battery during charging is converted into the chemical energy that the battery can store. It is mainly affected by the battery process and the working environment temperature of the battery. Generally, the higher the ambient temperature, the lower the charging efficiency.
25. What is discharge efficiency?
Discharge efficiency refers to the ratio of the actual amount of electricity released to the rated capacity from discharge to the terminal voltage under certain discharge conditions, which is mainly affected by factors such as discharge rate, ambient temperature, internal resistance, etc. In general, the higher the discharge rate, the more The lower the discharge efficiency. The lower the temperature, the lower the discharge efficiency.
26. What is the output power of the battery?
The output power of a battery refers to the ability to output energy per unit time. It is calculated based on the discharge current I and the discharge voltage, P=U*I, in watts.
The smaller the internal resistance of the battery, the higher the output power. The internal resistance of the battery should be smaller than the internal resistance of the electrical appliance, otherwise the power consumed by the battery itself will be greater than the power consumed by the electrical appliance, which is uneconomical and may damage the battery.
27. What is the self-discharge of the secondary battery?
What are the self-discharge rates of different types of batteries?
Self-discharge, also known as charge retention capability, refers to the retention capability of the battery’s stored power under certain environmental conditions in an open-circuit state. Generally speaking, self-discharge is mainly affected by manufacturing process, materials, and storage conditions. Self-discharge is one of the main parameters to measure battery performance. Generally speaking, the lower the battery storage temperature, the lower the self-discharge rate, but it should also be noted that too low or too high temperature may cause the battery to be damaged and unusable.
After the battery is fully charged and left open for a period of time, it is normal for a certain degree of self-discharge. The IEC standard stipulates that after the NiMH battery is fully charged, the temperature is 20°C±5°C and the humidity is (65±20)%, and the battery is left open for 28 days, and the 0.2C discharge capacity reaches 60% of the initial capacity.
28. What is the 24-hour self-discharge test?
The self-discharge test of lithium battery is:
Generally, 24-hour self-discharge is used to quickly test its charge retention capability. The battery is discharged at 0.2C to 3.0V, constant current and constant voltage 1C to 4.2V, cut-off current: 10mA, after 15 minutes of rest, discharge at 1C to 3.0 V measure its discharge capacity C1, then charge the battery with constant current and constant voltage 1C to 4.2V, cut-off current: 10mA, and measure 1C capacity C2 after 24 hours of rest, C2/C1*100% should be greater than 99%.
29. What is the difference between the internal resistance in the charging state and the internal resistance in the discharging state?
The internal resistance in the charging state refers to the internal resistance of the battery when it is 100% fully charged; the internal resistance in the discharging state refers to the internal resistance after the battery is fully discharged.
Generally speaking, the internal resistance in the discharge state is not stable and too large, while the internal resistance in the charging state is small and the resistance value is relatively stable. During the use of the battery, only the internal resistance in the charging state has practical significance. In the later period of the battery use, due to the exhaustion of the electrolyte and the reduction of the activity of the internal chemical substances, the internal resistance of the battery will increase to varying degrees.
30. What is static resistance? What is dynamic resistance?
The static internal resistance is the internal resistance of the battery during discharge, and the dynamic internal resistance is the internal resistance of the battery during charging.
31. Is the standard overcharge resistance test?
IEC stipulates that the standard overcharge resistance test for NiMH batteries is:
Discharge the battery to 1.0V at 0.2C and charge it continuously for 48 hours at 0.1C. The battery should be free of deformation and leakage, and the time it takes to discharge from 0.2C to 1.0V after overcharging should be greater than 5 hours.
32. What is the IEC standard cycle life test?
IEC stipulates that the standard cycle life test of NiMH batteries is:
After the battery is discharged from 0.2C to 1.0V/piece
01) Charge at 0.1C for 16 hours, then discharge at 0.2C for 2 hours and 30 minutes (one cycle)
02) 0.25C charge for 3 hours and 10 minutes, discharge at 0.25C for 2 hours and 20 minutes (2-48 cycles)
03) Charge at 0.25C for 3 hours and 10 minutes, put it at 0.25C to 1.0V (the 49th cycle)
04) 0.1C charge for 16 hours, set aside for 1 hour, 0.2C discharge to 1.0V (50th cycle). For nickel-metal hydride batteries, after repeating 1-4 for a total of 400 cycles, the 0.2C discharge time should be greater than 3 hours; for nickel-cadmium batteries, after repeating 1-4 for a total of 500 cycles, the 0.2C discharge time should be greater than 3 hours.
33. What is the internal pressure of the battery?
Refers to the internal air pressure of the battery, which is caused by the gas generated during the charging and discharging process of the sealed battery, and is mainly affected by factors such as battery material, manufacturing process, and battery structure. The main reason is that the gas generated by the decomposition of moisture and organic solution inside the battery accumulates in the battery. Generally, the internal pressure of the battery is maintained at a normal level. In the case of overcharge or overdischarge, the internal pressure of the battery may increase:
For example, overcharge, positive: 4OH- – 4e → 2H2O + O2↑; ①
The generated oxygen reacts with the hydrogen evolved on the negative electrode to form water 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O ②
If the speed of reaction ② is lower than the speed of reaction ①, the generated oxygen will not be consumed in time, which will cause the internal pressure of the battery to rise.
34. What is the standard charge retention test?
The IEC stipulates that the standard charge retention test for NiMH batteries is:
After the battery was discharged to 1.0V at 0.2C, charged at 0.1C for 16 hours, and stored for 28 days at a temperature of 20°C±5°C and a humidity of 65%±20%, then discharged at 0.2C to 1.0V, and NiMH batteries should be more than 3 hours.
The national standard stipulates that the standard charge retention test for lithium batteries is: (IEC has no relevant standards) the battery is discharged to 3.0/unit at 0.2C, and then charged to 4.2V at 1C constant current and constant voltage, the cut-off current is 10mA, and the temperature is 20 After 28 days of storage at ℃±5℃, discharge it to 2.75V at 0.2C, calculate the discharge capacity, and then compare it with the nominal capacity of the battery, which should not be less than 85% of the initial capacity.
35. What is a short circuit experiment?
Connect the fully charged battery with an internal resistance ≤100mΩ wire in the explosion-proof box to short-circuit the positive and negative electrodes. The battery should not explode or catch fire.
36. What is the high temperature and high humidity test?
The high temperature and high humidity test of Ni-MH battery is:
After the battery is fully charged, it is stored for several days under the conditions of constant temperature and humidity, and no leakage is observed during the storage process.
The lithium battery high temperature and high humidity test is: (national standard)
Charge the battery with 1C constant current and constant voltage to 4.2V, the cut-off current is 10mA, and then put it in a constant temperature and humidity box with a relative humidity of 90%-95% for 48 hours at (40±2) °C, and then take the battery out in (20°C). Set aside for 2h under the condition of ±5)℃, observe that the appearance of the battery should be normal, then discharge to 2.75V at 1C constant current, and then perform 1C charge and 1C discharge cycle under the condition of (20±5)℃ until the discharge capacity is reached Not less than 85% of the initial capacity, but not more than 3 cycles.
37. What is the temperature rise experiment?
After the battery is fully charged, put it in the oven, and start to heat up from room temperature at a rate of 5°C/min. When the oven temperature reaches 130°C, keep it for 30 minutes. The battery should not explode or catch fire.
38. What is the temperature cycle experiment?
The temperature cycling experiment consisted of 27 cycles, each consisting of the following steps:
01) The battery is placed at 66±3℃ and 15±5% for 1 hour from normal temperature.
02) Put it for 1 hour under the condition of temperature of 33±3℃ and humidity of 90±5℃,
03) The conditions are changed to -40±3℃ and placed for 1 hour
04) The battery is left at 25℃ for 0.5 hours
This 4 steps completes a cycle. After the 27 cycle experiments, the battery should have no leakage, alkali creep, rust or other abnormal conditions.
39. What is a drop test?
After fully charging the battery or battery pack, drop it three times from a height of 1m to the concrete (or cement) ground to obtain a random direction impact.
40. What is a vibration experiment?
The vibration experiment method of NiMH battery is as follows:
After the battery is discharged at 0.2C to 1.0V, it is charged at 0.1C for 16 hours, and then vibrated under the following conditions after 24 hours of storage:
Make the battery vibrate between 10HZ-55HZ, increasing or decreasing at a vibration rate of 1HZ per minute.
The battery voltage change should be within ±0.02V, and the internal resistance change should be within ±5mΩ. (Vibration time is 90min)
The vibration test method of lithium battery is as follows:
After the battery is discharged at 0.2C to 3.0V, the battery is charged to 4.2V with constant current and constant voltage at 1C, and the cut-off current is 10mA. After 24 hours of storage, it will vibrate according to the following conditions:
Vibration experiments were performed with the vibration frequency ranging from 10 Hz to 60 Hz to 10 Hz within 5 minutes as a cycle with an amplitude of 0.06 inches. The battery vibrates in three axis directions for half an hour per axis.
The battery voltage change should be within ±0.02V, and the internal resistance change should be within ±5mΩ.
41. What is the impact test?
After the battery is fully charged, place a hard bar horizontally on the battery and drop a 20-pound weight on the hard bar from a certain height. The battery should not explode or catch fire.
42. What is penetration experiment?
After the battery is fully charged, use a nail of a certain diameter through the center of the battery, and leave the nail inside the battery, the battery should not explode or catch fire.
43. What is a fire experiment?
The fully charged battery is placed on a heating unit with a special shield for fire, and no fragments pass through the shield.
Battery common problems and analysis
44. What certifications have the company’s products passed?
Has passed ISO9001: 2000 quality system certification and ISO14001: 2004 environmental protection system certification; products have obtained EU CE certification and North American UL certification, passed the SGS environmental protection test, and have obtained Ovonic’s patent license; At the same time, the company’s products have been approved by PICC in the world Coverage.
45. What is a Ready-To-Use battery?
The Ready-to-use battery is a new type of Ni-MH battery with high charge retention rate that the company launched. That is to say, the battery can not only be recycled, but also has a higher residual capacity after being stored for the same time compared with ordinary secondary Ni-MH batteries.
46. Why is Ready-To-Use (HFR) said to be the most ideal product to replace disposable batteries?
Compared with similar products, this product has the following remarkable features:
01) Smaller self-discharge;
02) Longer storage time;
03) Resistant to over-discharge;
04) Long cycle life;
05) Especially when the battery voltage is lower than 1.0V, it has a good capacity recovery function;
More importantly, the charge retention rate of this type of battery can reach 75% when stored at 25°C for one year, so this battery is the most ideal product to replace disposable batteries.
47. What precautions should be taken when using the battery?
01) Please read the battery manual carefully before use;
02) Electrical appliances and battery contacts should be cleaned, wiped with a damp cloth if necessary, and installed according to the polarity mark after drying;
03) Do not mix old and new batteries, and batteries of the same type but different types cannot be mixed, so as not to reduce the use efficiency;
04) Disposable batteries cannot be regenerated by heating or charging;
05) The battery cannot be short-circuited;
06) Do not disassemble and heat the battery, or throw the battery into water;
07) When the electrical appliance is not used for a long time, the battery should be taken out, and the switch should be turned off after use;
08) Do not discard waste batteries at will, and place them separately from other garbage as much as possible to avoid polluting the environment;
09) When there is no adult supervision, do not allow children to replace the battery, and the small battery should be placed in a place that children cannot reach;
10) The battery should be stored in a cool, dry place without direct sunlight.
48. What is the difference between the various rechargeable batteries that are currently common?
At present, nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen and lithium-ion rechargeable batteries are widely used in various portable electrical devices (such as notebook computers, video cameras and mobile phones, etc.), and each rechargeable battery has its own unique chemical properties. The main difference between NiCd and NiMH batteries is that NiMH batteries have a higher energy density. Compared with the same type of battery, the capacity of NiMH battery is twice that of NiCd battery. This means that the use of NiMH batteries can greatly extend the working time of the equipment without adding extra weight to the electrical equipment. Another advantage of NiMH batteries is that: A greatly reduces the problem of “memory effect” that exists in cadmium batteries, thus making NiMH batteries more convenient to use. NiMH batteries are more environmentally friendly than NiCd batteries because there are no toxic heavy metal elements inside. Li-ion has also quickly become the standard power supply for portable devices. Li-ion can provide the same energy as NiMH batteries, but it can be reduced by about 35% in weight, which is suitable for electronic equipment such as video cameras and notebook computers. is crucial. Li-ion’s complete lack of “memory effect” and the absence of toxic substances are also important factors that make it a standard power supply.
The discharge efficiency of nickel-metal hydride batteries will decrease significantly at low temperatures. Generally, the charging efficiency will increase with the increase of temperature. However, when the temperature rises above 45 °C, the performance of rechargeable battery materials will be degraded at high temperatures, and the cycle life of the battery will be reduced. will also be greatly shortened.
49. What is the rate discharge of the battery? What is the hourly rate discharge of the battery?
Rate discharge refers to the rate relationship between discharge current (A) and rated capacity (A?h) during discharge. Hourly rate discharge refers to the number of hours required to discharge the rated capacity according to a certain output current.
50. Why is it necessary to keep the battery warm when shooting in winter?
When the temperature of the battery in the digital camera is too low, the activity of the active material is greatly reduced, so it may not be able to provide the normal working current of the camera. Therefore, shooting outdoors in areas with low temperature, especially
It should pay attention to the warmth of the camera or battery.
51. What is the operating temperature range of lithium-ion batteries?
Charge -10—45℃ Discharge -30—55℃
52. Can batteries of different capacities be combined together?
If different capacities or old and new batteries are used together, there may be liquid leakage, zero voltage, etc. This is due to the difference in capacity during the charging process, which causes some batteries to be overcharged during charging, and some batteries are not fully charged, and have capacity during discharge. High batteries are not fully discharged, while low capacity batteries are overdischarged, in such a vicious cycle, batteries are damaged and leak or low (zero) voltage.
53. What is an external short circuit and how does it affect battery performance?
Connecting the outer ends of the battery to any conductor will cause an external short circuit. Depending on the battery type, the short circuit may have consequences of varying severity. Such as: the temperature of the electrolyte rises, the internal pressure rises, etc. If the air pressure value exceeds the pressure resistance value of the battery cap, the battery will leak. This condition severely damages the battery. If the safety valve fails, it can even cause an explosion. Therefore, do not short-circuit the battery externally.
54. What are the main factors that affect the battery life?
When choosing a charger, it is best to use a charger with proper charging termination devices (such as anti-overcharge time device, negative voltage difference (-dV) cut off charging, and anti-overheating induction device), so as not to shorten the battery life due to overcharging. Generally speaking, slow charging can extend the life of the battery more than fast charging.
a. The depth of discharge is the main factor affecting the life of the battery. The higher the depth of discharge, the shorter the life of the battery. In other words, as long as the depth of discharge is reduced, the life of the battery can be greatly extended. Therefore, we should avoid overdischarging batteries to extremely low voltages.
b. When the battery is discharged at high temperature, the service life of the battery will be shortened.
c. If the designed electronic equipment cannot completely stop all current, if the equipment is not used for a long time without taking out the battery, the residual current will sometimes cause excessive consumption of the battery, resulting in over-discharge of the battery.
d. When using batteries of different capacities, chemical structures or different charging levels, as well as old and new batteries, the batteries will be discharged too much, or even reversed charging.
If the battery is stored at high temperature for a long time, the electrode activity will be attenuated and the service life will be shortened.
55. Can the battery be stored in the electrical appliance after it is used up or not used for a long time?
If the electrical appliance will not be used for a long time, it is better to take the battery out and put it in a low temperature and dry place. If not, even if the electrical appliance is turned off, the system will still make the battery have a low current output, which will shorten the battery usage
56. What kind of conditions are better for batteries to be stored in? Does the battery need to be fully charged for long-term storage?
According to the IEC standard, the battery should be stored at a temperature of 20℃±5℃ and a humidity of (65±20)%. Generally speaking, the higher the battery storage temperature, the lower the capacity remaining rate, and vice versa, the best place to store the battery when the refrigerator temperature is 0℃-10℃, especially for the primary battery. On the other hand, even if the secondary battery loses its capacity after storage, it can be recovered by recharging and discharging several times.
In theory, there is always a loss of energy when a battery is stored. The inherent electrochemical structure of the battery itself determines the inevitable loss of battery capacity, mainly due to self-discharge. Usually the magnitude of self-discharge is related to the solubility of the cathode material in the electrolyte and its instability (easy self-decomposition) after heating. The self-discharge of rechargeable batteries is much higher than that of primary batteries.
If you want to store the battery for a long time, it is best to keep it in a dry and low temperature environment and let the remaining battery power be around 40%. Of course, it is best to take the battery out and use it once a month, which can not only ensure a good state of preservation of the battery, but also prevent the battery from being completely drained and damaged.
57. What is a standard battery?
A battery that is internationally specified as a potential (bit) measurement standard. It was invented by American electrical engineer E. Weston in 1892, so it is also called Weston battery.
The positive electrode of the standard battery is a mercurous sulfate electrode, the negative electrode is a cadmium amalgam metal (containing 10% or 12.5% cadmium), and the electrolyte is an acidic saturated aqueous cadmium sulfate solution, which is actually a saturated aqueous solution of cadmium sulfate and mercurous sulfate. .
58. What are the possible reasons for the zero voltage or low voltage of the single cell?
01) External short circuit or overcharge or reverse charge of the battery (forced overdischarge);
02) The battery is continuously overcharged by high rate and high current, resulting in the expansion of the battery pole core, the direct contact of the positive and negative poles, and the short circuit;
03) Internal short-circuit or micro-short circuit of the battery, such as: improper placement of positive and negative plates, resulting in short-circuit of the pole pieces, or contact of the positive and negative pieces, etc.
59. What are the possible reasons for the zero voltage or low voltage of the battery pack?
01) Whether a single battery has zero voltage;
02) The plug is short-circuited or open-circuited, and the connection with the plug is not good;
03) Desoldering and virtual welding of lead and battery;
04) The internal connection of the battery is wrong, and the connection piece and the battery are leaked, soldered, and desoldered;
05) The internal electronic components of the battery are incorrectly connected and damaged.
60. What are the control methods to prevent battery overcharge?
In order to prevent the battery from being overcharged, it is necessary to control the charging end point. When the battery is fully charged, there will be some special information that can be used to judge whether the charging has reached the end point. Generally, there are the following six methods to prevent the battery from being overcharged:
01) Peak voltage control: determine the end point of charging by detecting the peak voltage of the battery;
02) dT/dt control: judge the end point of charging by detecting the rate of change of the peak temperature of the battery;
03) △T control: when the battery is fully charged, the difference between the temperature and the ambient temperature will reach the maximum;
04)-△V control: when the battery is fully charged and reaches a peak voltage, the voltage will drop to a certain value;
05) Timing control: control the charging end point by setting a certain charging time, generally set the time required to charge 130% of the nominal capacity to control;
61. What are the possible reasons why the battery and battery pack cannot be charged?
01) The battery has zero voltage or there is a zero-voltage battery in the battery pack;
02) The battery pack is connected incorrectly, the internal electronic components and the protection circuit are abnormal;
03) The charging equipment is faulty and there is no output current;
04) The charging efficiency is too low due to external factors (such as extremely low or extremely high temperature).
62. What are the possible reasons why batteries and battery packs cannot be discharged?
01) After the battery is stored and used, its life is attenuated;
02) Insufficient or uncharged;
03) The ambient temperature is too low;
04) The discharge efficiency is low. For example, during high current discharge, ordinary batteries cannot discharge electricity because the diffusion speed of internal substances cannot keep up with the reaction speed, resulting in a sharp drop in voltage.
63. What are the possible reasons for the short discharge time of batteries and battery packs?
01) The battery is not fully charged, such as insufficient charging time, low charging efficiency, etc.;
02) The discharge current is too large, which reduces the discharge efficiency and shortens the discharge time;
03) When the battery is discharged, the ambient temperature is too low, and the discharge efficiency decreases;
64. What is overcharge and how does it affect battery performance?
Overcharging refers to the behavior of continuing charging after the battery is fully charged after a certain charging process. For Ni-MH batteries, overcharging produces the following reactions:
Positive electrode: 4OH- – 4e → 2H2O + O2↑; ①
Negative: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O ②
Since the capacity of the negative electrode is higher than that of the positive electrode in the design, the oxygen generated by the positive electrode passes through the separator paper and the hydrogen generated by the negative electrode is combined, so the internal pressure of the battery will not increase significantly under normal circumstances, but if the charging current is too large, Or if the charging time is too long, the generated oxygen will not be consumed in time, which may cause the internal pressure to rise, battery deformation, leakage and other undesirable phenomena. At the same time, its electrical properties will also be significantly reduced.
65. What is overdischarge and how does it affect battery performance?
After the battery has discharged the internal stored power, after the voltage reaches a certain value, continuing to discharge will cause over-discharge. Usually, the discharge cut-off voltage is determined according to the discharge current. 0.2C-2C discharge is generally set to 1.0V/piece, and above 3C, such as 5C or 10C discharge is set to 0.8V/piece. Battery over-discharge may bring catastrophic consequences to the battery, especially high-current over-discharge or repeated over-discharge, which has a greater impact on the battery. Generally speaking, over-discharge will increase the internal pressure of the battery, and the positive and negative active materials The reversibility is destroyed, and even if it is charged, it can only be partially restored, and the capacity will be significantly attenuated.
66. What is the main reason for the expansion of rechargeable batteries?
01) Bad battery protection circuit;
02) The battery cell expands without protection function;
03) The performance of the charger is poor, and the charging current is too large, causing the battery to expand;
04) The battery is continuously overcharged by high rate and high current;
05) The battery is forced to over-discharge;
06) The problem with the design of the battery itself.
67. What is the explosion of the battery? How to prevent battery explosion?
Any part of the solid matter in the battery is instantly discharged and pushed to a distance of more than 25cm from the battery, which is called an explosion. The general means of prevention are:
01) No charge or short circuit;
02) Use better charging equipment for charging;
03) The ventilation holes of the battery must always be kept unobstructed;
04) Pay attention to heat dissipation when using the battery;
05) It is forbidden to mix different types of new and old batteries.
68. What is a portable battery?
Portable, meaning easy to carry and easy to use. Portable batteries are mainly used to provide power for portable, cordless devices. Larger size batteries (eg 4kg or more) are not portable batteries. Typical portable batteries today are around a few hundred grams.
The family of portable batteries includes primary batteries and rechargeable batteries (secondary batteries). Button batteries belong to a special group of them
69. What are the characteristics of rechargeable portable batteries?
Every battery is an energy converter. The stored chemical energy can be directly converted into electrical energy. For rechargeable batteries, this process can be described as follows: the electrical energy is converted into chemical energy during the charging process → the chemical energy is converted into electrical energy during the discharge process → the electrical energy is converted into chemical energy during the charging process, and the secondary battery can be cycled more than 1,000 times.
There are rechargeable portable batteries in different electrochemical types, lead-acid type (2V/piece), nickel-cadmium type (1.2V/piece), nickel-metal hydride type (1.2V/piece), lithium-ion battery (3.6V/piece) ), the typical characteristics of these kinds of batteries are relatively constant discharge voltage (there is a voltage plateau during discharge), and the voltage decays quickly at the beginning and end of discharge.
70. Can any chargers be used for rechargeable portable batteries?
No, because any charger only corresponds to a specific charging process, and can only correspond to a specific electrochemical process, such as lithium-ion, lead-acid or Ni-MH batteries, which not only have different voltage characteristics, but also different charging modes. Only specially developed fast chargers can make Ni-MH batteries get the most suitable charging effect. Slow chargers can be used when needed, but will take more time, it should be noted that although some chargers have qualified labels on them, special care should be taken when using them as chargers for batteries of different electrochemical systems , the qualified label only indicates that the device complies with European electrochemical standards or other national standards. This label does not give any information on what type of battery it is suitable for. Using an inexpensive charger to charge Ni-MH batteries does not Satisfactory results will be obtained, but there are also dangers, which should also be noted for other types of battery chargers.
71. Can the 1.5V alkaline manganese battery be replaced by a rechargeable 1.2V portable battery?
The voltage of the alkaline manganese battery is in the range of 1.5V to 0.9V during discharge, while the constant voltage of the rechargeable battery is 1.2V/piece, which is roughly equal to the average voltage of the alkaline manganese voltage. Batteries are doable and vice versa.
72. What are the advantages and disadvantages of rechargeable batteries?
The advantage of rechargeable batteries is that they have a long service life. Even if they are more expensive than primary batteries, they are very economical from the point of view of long-term use, and the load capacity of rechargeable batteries is higher than that of most primary batteries. However, the discharge voltage of ordinary secondary batteries is basically constant, and it is difficult to predict when the discharge will end, so it will cause some inconvenience in the process of use. However, lithium-ion batteries can provide camera equipment with a long service time, high load capacity, high energy density, and the drop in discharge voltage weakens with the depth of discharge.
Ordinary secondary batteries have a high self-discharge rate, so they are suitable for high-current discharges such as digital cameras, toys, power tools, emergency lights, etc. It is not suitable for places that are used intermittently for a long time, such as flashlights. At present, the ideal battery is the lithium battery, which has almost all the advantages of the battery, and the self-discharge rate is extremely low.
73. What are the advantages of NiMH batteries? What are the advantages of lithium-ion batteries?
The advantages of NiMH batteries are:
01) Low cost;
02) Good fast charging performance;
03) Long cycle life;
04) No memory effect;
05) No pollution, green battery;
06) Wide temperature range;
07) Good safety performance.
The advantages of lithium-ion batteries are:
01) High energy density;
02) High working voltage;
03) No memory effect;
04) Long cycle life;
05) No pollution;
06) Light weight;
07) Small self-discharge.
74. What are the advantages of lithium iron phosphate batteries?
The main application direction of lithium iron phosphate battery is power battery, and its advantages are mainly reflected in the following aspects:
01) Super long life;
02) Safe to use;
03) It can charge and discharge quickly with high current;
04) High temperature resistance;
05) Large capacity;
06) No memory effect;
07) Small size and light weight;
08) Green and environmentally friendly.
75. What are the advantages of lithium polymer batteries?
01) There is no battery leakage problem, the battery does not contain liquid electrolyte, and colloidal solid is used;
02) It can be made into a thin battery: with a capacity of 3.6V and 400mAh, its thickness can be as thin as 0.5mm;
03) The battery can be designed into various shapes;
04) The battery can be bent and deformed: the polymer battery can be bent at a maximum of about 900;
05) It can be made into a single high voltage: the battery with liquid electrolyte can only obtain high voltage by connecting several batteries in series, polymer battery;
06) Since there is no liquid in itself, it can be made into a multi-layer combination in a single cell to achieve high voltage;
07) The capacity will be double that of a lithium-ion battery of the same size.
76. What is the principle of the charger? What are the main categories?
The charger is a static converter device that uses power electronic semiconductor devices to convert alternating current with constant voltage and frequency into direct current. There are many chargers, such as lead-acid battery chargers, valve-regulated sealed lead-acid battery testing and monitoring, nickel-cadmium battery chargers, nickel-metal hydride battery chargers, lithium-ion battery chargers, portable electronic equipment lithium-ion battery chargers, Li-ion battery protection circuit multi-function charger, electric vehicle battery charger, etc.
Battery type and application field
77. How to classify batteries
– Primary batteries – carbon-zinc dry batteries, alkaline-manganese batteries, lithium batteries, activated batteries, zinc-mercury batteries, cadmium-mercury batteries, zinc-air batteries, Zinc-silver batteries and solid electrolyte batteries (silver-iodine batteries), etc.
——Secondary batteries—— lead batteries, Ni-Cd batteries, Ni-MH batteries, Li-ion batteries, and sodium-sulfur batteries, etc. .
– Other batteries – fuel cell batteries, air batteries, thin batteries, light batteries, nano batteries, etc.
Physical battery: – solar cell (solar cell)
78. What battery will dominate the battery market?
As multimedia devices with images or sounds, such as cameras, mobile phones, cordless phones, and notebook computers, occupy more and more important positions in household appliances, secondary batteries are also widely used in these fields compared with primary batteries. The rechargeable battery will develop in the direction of small size, light weight, high capacity and intelligence.
79. What is an intelligent secondary battery?
A chip is installed in the smart battery, which not only provides power to the device, but also controls its main functions. This type of battery can also display the residual capacity, the number of cycles, temperature, etc., but there are currently no smart batteries on the market. , will dominate the market in the future – especially in camcorders, cordless phones, mobile phones and notebook computers.
80. What is a paper battery?
Paper battery is a new type of battery, and its components also include electrodes, electrolyte and separator. Specifically, this new type of paper battery is composed of cellulose paper implanted with electrodes and electrolyte, where the cellulose paper acts as a separator. The electrodes are carbon nanotubes added to cellulose and metal lithium covered on a film made of cellulose; and the electrolyte is a lithium hexafluorophosphate solution. The battery is foldable and only as thick as paper. The researchers believe that this paper battery will become a new type of energy storage device due to its many properties.
81. What is a photocell?
A photovoltaic cell is a semiconductor element that generates an electromotive force when illuminated by light. There are many types of photovoltaic cells, such as selenium photovoltaic cells, silicon photovoltaic cells, thallium sulfide and silver sulfide photovoltaic cells. Mainly used for instrumentation, automation telemetry and remote control. Some photovoltaic cells can directly convert solar energy into electricity.
Also called solar cell.
82. What is a solar cell? What are the advantages of solar cells?
A solar cell is a device that converts light energy (mainly sunlight) into electrical energy. The principle is the photovoltaic effect, that is, according to the built-in electric field of the PN junction, the photo-generated carriers are separated to reach both sides of the junction to generate a photovoltage, and when connected to an external circuit, the power is output. The power of the solar cell is related to the light intensity, the stronger the light, the stronger the power output.
The solar system is easy to install, easy to expand, easy to disassemble and so on. At the same time, the use of solar energy is also very economical, and there is no energy consumption during operation. In addition the system is resistant to mechanical wear; a solar system needs reliable solar cells in order to receive and store solar energy. General solar cells have the following advantages:
01) High charge absorption capacity;
02) Long cycle life;
03) Good rechargeable performance;
04) No maintenance required.
83. What is a fuel cell? How to classify?
A fuel cell is an electrochemical system that converts chemical energy directly into electrical energy.
The most common classification method is according to the type of electrolyte. According to this, fuel cells can be divided into alkaline fuel cells, generally using potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte; phosphoric acid fuel cells, using concentrated phosphoric acid as the electrolyte; proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Using perfluorinated or partially fluorinated sulfonic acid type proton exchange membrane as electrolyte; molten carbonate type fuel cell, using molten lithium-potassium carbonate or lithium-sodium carbonate as electrolyte; solid oxide fuel cell, Use solid oxides as oxygen ion conductors, such as yttria-stabilized zirconia films as electrolytes. Batteries are also sometimes classified according to the battery temperature, and are divided into low temperature (operating temperature below 100°C) fuel cells, including alkaline fuel cells and proton exchange membrane fuel cells; medium temperature fuel cells (operating temperature at 100-300°C), including Bacon type alkaline fuel cells and phosphoric acid fuel cells; high temperature fuel cells (operating temperature at 600-1000 ℃), including molten carbonate fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cells.
84. Why do fuel cells have great potential for development?
In the past decade or two, the United States has paid special attention to the research and development of fuel cells, while Japan has vigorously carried out technology development based on the introduction of American technology. The reason why the fuel cell has attracted the attention of some developed countries is mainly because it has the following advantages:
01) High efficiency. Because the chemical energy of the fuel is directly converted into electrical energy without thermal energy conversion in the middle, the conversion efficiency is not limited by the thermodynamic Carnot cycle; because there is no mechanical energy conversion, mechanical transmission losses can be avoided, and the conversion efficiency is not affected by the size of the power generation scale. and change, so the fuel cell has a higher conversion efficiency;
02) Low noise and low pollution. In the process of converting chemical energy into electrical energy, the fuel cell has no mechanical moving parts, only some small moving parts in the control system, so it is low noise. In addition, fuel cells are low-polluting energy sources. Taking the phosphoric acid fuel cell as an example, its emission of sulfur oxides and nitrides is two orders of magnitude lower than the US standard;
03) Strong adaptability. Fuel cells can use various hydrogen-containing fuels, such as methane, methanol, ethanol, biogas, petroleum gas, natural gas and synthetic gas, etc., and the oxidant is inexhaustible air. Fuel cells can be made into standard components with a certain power (such as 40 kilowatts), assembled into different power and types according to the needs of users, and installed in the most convenient place for users. If necessary, it can also be installed into a large-scale power station and used in connection with the conventional power supply system, which will help to regulate the power load;
04) Short construction period and easy maintenance. After the fuel cell is formed into industrial production, various standard components of the power generation device can be continuously produced in the factory. It is easy to transport and can also be assembled on site at the power station. Some people estimate that the maintenance of a 40-kilowatt phosphoric acid fuel cell is only 25% of that of a diesel generator of the same power.
Because the fuel cell has so many advantages, both the United States and Japan attach great importance to its development.
85. What is a nano battery?
Nano is 10-9 meters, and nano-battery is a battery made of nano-materials (such as nano-MnO2, LiMn2O4, Ni(OH)2, etc.). Nanomaterials have special microstructure and physicochemical properties (such as quantum size effect, surface effect, and tunnel quantum effect, etc.). At present, the nano-battery with mature technology in China is the nano-activated carbon fiber battery. Mainly used in electric vehicles, electric motorcycles and electric bicycles. This kind of battery can be recharged 1000 times and used continuously for about 10 years. It only takes about 20 minutes to charge a single charge, the road travel is 400km, and the weight is 128kg, which has surpassed the level of battery vehicles in the United States, Japan and other countries. The nickel-metal hydride batteries produced by them take about 6-8 hours to charge, and the flat road travel is 300km.
86. What is a plastic lithium-ion battery?
The current plastic lithium-ion battery refers to the use of ion-conductive polymers as electrolytes, which can be either dry or colloidal.
87. Which devices are best used for rechargeable batteries?
Rechargeable batteries are especially suitable for electrical equipment that requires relatively high energy supply or equipment that requires high current discharge, such as portable single players, CD players, small radios, electronic game consoles, electric toys, household appliances, professional cameras, mobile phones, Cordless phones, notebook computers and other devices that require higher energy. It is best not to use rechargeable batteries for equipment that is not commonly used, because the self-discharge of rechargeable batteries is relatively large, but if the equipment needs to discharge a large current, it must use rechargeable batteries. Generally, users should choose suitable equipment according to the instructions provided by the manufacturer. ‘s battery.
88. What are the types of batteries used in emergency lights?
01) Sealed NiMH battery;
02) Adjustable valve lead-acid battery;
03) Other types of batteries may also be used if they comply with the corresponding safety and performance standards of the IEC 60598 (2000) (emergency light section) standard (emergency light section).
89. How long is the service life of a rechargeable battery for a cordless phone?
Under normal use, the service life is 2-3 years or more, when the following conditions occur, the battery needs to be replaced:
01) After charging, the talk time is shorter than once;
02) The call signal is not clear enough, the reception effect is very vague, and the noise is large;
03) The distance between the cordless phone and the base needs to be closer and closer, that is, the use range of the cordless phone is getting narrower and narrower.
90. What kind of batteries can be used for remote control?
The remote control can only be used by ensuring that the battery is in its fixed position. Different types of zinc-carbon batteries are available for different remote controls. They can be identified by the IEC standard designation, the commonly used batteries are AAA, AA and 9V large batteries. Alkaline batteries are also a better option, which provides twice the working time of zinc-carbon batteries. They are also identified by IEC standards (LR03, LR6, 6LR61). However, since the remote control requires less current, zinc-carbon batteries are economical to use.
A charged secondary battery can also be used in principle, but it is not practical for use in a remote control device. Due to the high self-discharge rate of the secondary battery, repeated charging is required.
Battery and environment
91. What impact does the battery have on the environment?
Almost all batteries today are mercury-free, but heavy metals are still an integral part of mercury, rechargeable nickel-cadmium, and lead-acid batteries. If disposed of improperly and in large quantities, these heavy metals will have a harmful impact on the environment. At present, there are specialized agencies in the world to recycle manganese oxide, nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries. Example: RBRC Corporation, a non-profit organization.
92. How does ambient temperature affect battery performance?
Among all environmental factors, temperature has the greatest impact on the charge-discharge performance of the battery. The electrochemical reaction at the electrode/electrolyte interface is related to the ambient temperature, and the electrode/electrolyte interface is regarded as the heart of the battery. If the temperature drops, the reaction rate of the electrodes also drops. Assuming the battery voltage remains constant and the discharge current decreases, the power output of the battery also decreases. If the temperature rises, the opposite is true, that is, the battery output power will rise. Temperature also affects the speed at which the electrolyte is delivered. If the temperature rises, the transfer will be accelerated, and if the temperature drops, the transfer will be slowed down, and the charge and discharge performance of the battery will be affected.
93. What is a green battery?
Green battery refers to a type of high-performance, non-polluting battery that has been put into use or is being developed and developed in recent years. Metal hydride nickel batteries, lithium-ion batteries, mercury-free alkaline zinc-manganese primary batteries and rechargeable batteries that have been widely used at present, and lithium or lithium-ion plastic batteries and fuel cells that are being developed and developed belong to this category. a category. In addition, solar cells (also known as photovoltaic power generation), which have been widely used and utilize solar energy for photoelectric conversion, can also be included in this category.
Technology Co., Ltd. has been committed to the research and supply of environmentally friendly batteries (nickel-metal hydride, lithium ion), and our products from the battery’s internal materials (positive and negative) to external packaging materials are in line with ROTHS standards.
94. What are the “green batteries” currently being used and researched?
New green battery refers to a kind of high-performance, pollution-free battery that has been put into use or is being developed in recent years. At present, lithium-ion batteries, metal hydride nickel batteries, mercury-free alkaline zinc-manganese batteries that are being widely used, and lithium or lithium-ion plastic batteries, combustion batteries, and electrochemical energy storage supercapacitors that are being developed are all new types of batteries. The category of green battery. In addition, solar cells using solar energy for photoelectric conversion have been widely used.
95. Where is the main manifestation of the harmfulness of used batteries?
The waste batteries that are harmful to human health and the ecological environment and listed in the hazardous waste control list mainly include: mercury-containing batteries, mainly mercury oxide batteries; lead-acid batteries: cadmium-containing batteries, mainly nickel-cadmium batteries. Due to the littering of discarded batteries, these batteries will pollute the soil, water, and people’s health by eating vegetables, fish and other foods.
96. What are the ways for waste batteries to pollute the environment?
The constituent substances of these batteries are sealed inside the battery case during use, and will not affect the environment. However, after long-term mechanical wear and corrosion, the internal heavy metals, acid and alkali leak out, enter the soil or water sources, and enter the human food chain through various ways. The whole process is briefly described as follows: soil or water source – microorganisms – animals – circulating dust – crops – food – human body – nerves – deposition and disease. The heavy metals ingested from the environment by other water source plant food digesting organisms can go through the biomagnification of the food chain and accumulate in thousands of higher organisms step by step, and then enter the human body through food and accumulate in some organs cause chronic poisoning.
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