For batteries, the focus is often on capacity and energy density, and these data can often intuitively reflect the length of cruising range.
But what we should note is that most batteries are electrochemical products. Since it is related to chemistry, its performance has a great relationship with temperature.
Let’s first look at the effect of temperature on battery performance through data.
The capacity of the battery is most closely related to the cruising range. How much does temperature affect the battery capacity? It can be seen that when the discharge current is 100A, the battery capacity shrinks by 1.7% and 7.7% respectively from 20°C to 0°C and then to -20°C. This means that even if the temperature is as low as -20°C, the battery can still reach more than 90% of the nominal capacity.
It can be said that the effect of temperature on battery capacity is relatively small.
However, this does not mean that we can ignore the effect of temperature on the battery. According to the information provided by Keheng New Energy’s lithium battery engineer experts, under the condition of a charging current of 5A, the charging time at an ambient temperature of -25°C is 63% slower than that at 25°C.
Lithium battery life is also a concern. A lithium battery with a capacity of 3500mAh, if it works in an environment of -10°C, after less than 100 charge and discharge cycles, the power will rapidly decay to 500mAh, and it will basically be scrapped.
That is to say, in a working environment of -10°C, if you charge and discharge once, the battery will be scrapped and replaced after three months. This figure may be a bit exaggerated, but low temperatures do drastically shorten battery life.
Therefore, regarding the impact of low temperature on the battery, the conclusion is that although the low temperature environment has little effect on the discharge performance of the battery, it will seriously affect the charging performance of the battery and greatly shorten the life of the battery.
The winter solution of battery technology for low temperature environment mainly has two aspects, one is the progress of battery technology, and the other is the maintenance of electric vehicle battery in winter.
For electric vehicle lithium battery maintenance methods in winter: In addition to relying on the technological progress of lithium battery factories, consumers can also perform winter maintenance of electric vehicle lithium batteries through some simple methods. So how do you go about doing it?
1. Pay attention to the charging method. Try not to charge the battery under low temperature conditions. The same is true for high temperature. When the high temperature exceeds 30 °C, the current input needs to be increased.
2. When charging in winter, you can use the method of charging several times. When the battery is hot, you can charge more at one time.
3. Keep the battery fully charged. In winter, when the battery discharge exceeds 50%, the electrolyte will be in danger of freezing. Therefore, the battery should try to keep it above 50% in winter.
4. Start the car every once in a while, charge it, don’t let the battery discharge too much, and don’t let the electric car sit outdoors for too long in winter. In this way, I believe that our electric vehicle lithium battery will be safe this winter.
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